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中国城市规模、人口迁移与城市不平等

Chen, Binkai, Dan Liu, and Ming Lu, 2018, “City size, migration and urban inequality in China,” China Economic Review 51 (2018) 42–58.
 
中国城市规模、人口迁移与城市不平等
 
摘要:本文以2005年中国1%人口普查为样本,考察了城市规模、人口流动和城市收入不平等之间的关系。我们计算了252个中国城市内部收入不平等的各种衡量标准。发现城市整体收入不平等与人口规模呈显著正相关关系。由于人口迁移是决定中国城市规模分布的关键因素,我们将重点探讨大量人口迁移到大城市在形成这种城市规模和不平等关系中的作用。我们发现,移民这一因素可以解释城市规模和不平等之间的关系的40%以上。这主要是因为移民改变了大城市工人的技能构成,从而提高了他们的技能溢价。
 
City size, migration and urban inequality in China
 
Abstract:This paper examines the relationship between city size, migration, and urban income inequality using a subsample of the 1% population census of China in 2005. We calculate various measures of within-city income inequality for 252 Chinese cities. It is found that overall city income inequality is significantly and positively correlated with population size. As migration is crucial in determining city size distribution in China, we focus on exploring the role of massive migration into big cities in shaping this size-inequality relationship. We find that the share of migrants alone accounts for more than 40% of the city size inequality premium. This is primarily because migration leads to higher skill premiums in larger cities by changing the skill composition of workers in those places.
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